Glossary of obesity

Added sugars
These sugars, syrups, and other caloric sweeteners are added when foods are processed or prepared. Added sugars do not include sugars that occur naturally, like fructose in fruit or lactose in milk. Names for added sugars include brown sugar, cane sugar, corn sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose (when not naturally occurring), fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose (when not in milk or dairy products), maltose, malt syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, and turbinado sugar.

Eating ice cream

Eating ice cream

Adipose tissue
(add-ih-POSE) Fat tissue in the body.

Aerobic physical activity or exercise
Aerobic (or endurance) physical activities use large muscle groups (back, chest, and legs) to increase heart rate and breathing for an extended period of time. Examples include bicycling, brisk walking, running, and swimming. Federal guidelines recommend that adults get 150 to 300 minutes of aerobic activity a week. Also see exercise and weight loss.

Bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery (bear-ee-AT-ric) Also known as gastrointestinal surgery or weight-loss surgery, this is surgery on the stomach and/or intestines to help patients with extreme obesity lose weight. Bariatric surgery is a weight-loss method used for people who have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or more. Surgery may also be an option for people with a BMI between 35 and 40 who have health problems related to obesity like heart disease or type 2 diabetes.

BMI or body mass index

Body mass index (BMI)”>Body mass index (BMI)) BMI is a measure of body weight relative to height. The BMI tool uses a formula that produces a score often used to determine if a person is underweight, at a normal weight, overweight, or obese. For adults, a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered healthy (or “normal”). A person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, and a person with a BMI of 30 or more is considered obese. Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. BMI charts for children compare their height and weight to other children of their same sex and age. For children ages 2 to19, those who are at or above the 85th percentile are considered overweight. Those who are at or above the 95th percentile are considered obese.

Exercise

A type of physical activity that is planned and structured. Exercise is done on purpose to improve or maintain health, physical fitness, and/or physical performance.

Fat
A major source of energy in the diet, fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Some kinds of fats, especially saturated fats and trans fatty acids, may raise blood cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease. Other fats, such as unsaturated fats, do not raise blood cholesterol. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids.

Flexibility
The range of motion possible at a joint. Flexibility exercises enhance the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion.

Gestational diabetes
(jest-AY-shun-ul) (dye-ah-BEE-teez)  A type of diabetes that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In the second half of her pregnancy, a woman may have glucose (sugar) in her blood at a level that is higher than normal. In about 95 percent of cases, blood sugar returns to normal after the pregnancy is over. However, women who develop gestational diabetes are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Glucose
(GLU-kos)  Glucose is a major source of energy for our bodies and a building block for many carbohydrates [see definition]. The food digestion process breaks down carbohydrates in foods and drinks into glucose. After digestion, glucose is carried in the blood and goes to body cells where it is used for energy or stored.

HDL
high-density lipoprotein is a type of cholesterol called good cholesterol in the blood that helps reduce atherosclerosis

Healthy weight
Healthy weight status is often based on having a body mass index (BMI) that falls in the normal (or healthy) range. A healthy body weight may lower the chances of developing health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Heart disease
Many different types of heart disease exist. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It’s the major reason people have heart attacks. Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure.

High blood pressure
Your blood pressure rises and falls throughout the day. An optimal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg. When blood pressure stays high—greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg—you have high blood pressure, also called “hypertension”. With high blood pressure, the heart works harder, your arteries take a beating, and your chances of a stroke, heart attack, and kidney problems are greater. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to blindness, heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease, and stroke. Prehypertension is blood pressure between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number. If your blood pressure is in the prehypertension range, you may be at risk for high blood pressure unless you take action to prevent it.

High-density lipoprotein
(HDL) (lip-o-PRO-teen)  HDL is a compound made up of fat and protein that carries cholesterol in the blood to the liver, where it is broken down and excreted. Commonly called “good” cholesterol, high levels of HDL cholesterol are linked to a lower risk of heart disease. Men should aim for an HDL of 40 mg/DL or higher. Women should aim for an HDL of 50 mg/DL or higher.

Hydrogenation
(high-dro-jen-AY-shun) A chemical process that turns liquid fats (oils) into solid fats, hydrogenation creates a fat called trans fatty acid (also known as “trans fat”). Trans fats are found in frostings, shortening, some margarines, and some commercial baked foods, like cakes, cookies, muffins, and pastries. Eating trans fats may raise heart disease risk. Federal dietary guidelines [found at Hypertension

Insulin
(IN-sah-lin)  A hormone made by the pancreas, insulin helps move glucose (sugar) from the blood to muscles and other tissues. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.

Lactose intolerance
A person with this digestive condition has difficulty digesting foods that have lactose, the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. If you have lactose intolerance, you may feel sick to your stomach after eating these foods. You may also have gas, diarrhea, and/or swelling in your stomach. Eating less food with lactose or using pills or drops to help you digest lactose usually helps. Aged and hard cheeses, fermented milk products (like yogurt), and lactose-free milk and milk products may be easier to digest. You may need to take a calcium supplement if you avoid milk and foods made with milk because they are the most common source of calcium for most people.

Low-density lipoprotein

Lipoprotein
Lipoprotein(lip-o-PRO-teen) A compound made up of fat and protein that carries fats and fat-like substances, such as cholesterol, in the blood.

Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)
(lip-o-PRO-teen) LDL is a compound made up of fat and protein that carries cholesterol in the blood from the liver to other parts of the body. High levels of LDL cholesterol, commonly called “bad” cholesterol, cause a buildup of cholesterol in the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease. An LDL level of less than 100 mg/dL is considered optimal, 100 to 129 mg/dL is considered near or above optimal, 130 to 159 mg/dL is considered borderline high, 160 to 189 mg/dL is considered high, and 190 mg/dL or greater is considered very high.

Macronutrient
(mac-roh-NOO-tree-ent) A macronutrient is any nutrient that the body uses in relatively large amounts. They include
carbohydrates, fat, and proteins. These are different from micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, which the body needs in smaller amounts.

Metabolic syndrome
(meh-TAB-o-lik SIND-rome) A person with metabolic syndrome has a group of medical problems that, when they occur together, may increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. These problems are a large waist size, high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, high levels of triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Metabolism
(meh-TAB-o-liszm) The process that occurs in the body to turn the food you eat into energy your body can use.

Monounsaturated fat
Monounsaturated fat (mono-un-SATCH-er-ay-ted) This type of fat is found in avocados, canola oil, nuts, olives and olive oil, and seeds. Eating food that has more monounsaturated fat (or “healthy fat”) instead of saturated fat (like butter) may help lower cholesterol and reduce heart disease risk. However, monounsaturated fat has the same number of calories as other types of fat and may contribute to weight gain if you eat too much of it. A type of physical activity that promotes the growth and strength of muscles. Examples include lifting weights and doing push-ups and sit-ups. Federal guidelines recommend that adults do activities that strengthen muscles at least twice a week.

Nutrient dense
Nutrient-dense foods and drinks provide important vitamins and minerals and relatively few calories. The term “nutrient dense” also means that these foods and drinks have not been processed or prepared in a way that added a lot of calories from refined starches, sodium, solid fats, or sugar. Examples include fat-free and low-fat milk products or substitutes; fruits and vegetables; protein sources such as beans and peas, eggs, lean meats, poultry, seafood, and unsalted nuts and seeds; and whole grains.

Nutrition
(new-TRISH-un) (1) The process of the body using food to sustain life. (2) The study of food and diet. (oh-BEE-si-tee) Obesity refers to excess body fat. Because body fat is usually not measured directly, a ratio of body weight to height is often used instead. It is defined as BMI

Oils
Fats that are liquid at room temperature, oils come from many different plants and from seafood. Some common oils include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, such as avocados, olives, nuts, and some fish. Federal dietary guidelines [found at Overweight
Overweight refers to an excessive amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat, and water. A person who has a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. It is important to remember that although BMI is related to the amount of body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat. As a result, some people, such as athletes, may have a BMI that identifies them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat.

Pancreas
(PAN-kree-as)

hormone insulin and releases it into the bloodstream to help the body control blood sugar levels.

Physical activity
Any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activities such as walking, running, strength training, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include daily activities such as mowing the lawn, washing the car, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, and walking the dog. Federal guidelines on physical activity recommend that adults get at least 150 minutes (30 minutes a day, 5 days a week) of moderate-intensity physical activity for general health benefits. Adults who wish to lose weight or maintain weight loss may need more physical activity, such as 300 minutes (60 minutes a day, 5 days a week). Children should get at least 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily.

Polyunsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat (poly-un-SATCH-er-ay-ted) This type of fat is liquid at room temperature. There are two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): omega-6 and omega-3. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in liquid vegetable oils, such as corn oil, safflower oil, and soybean oil. Omega-3 fatty acids come from plant sources—including canola oil, flaxseed, soybean oil, and walnuts—and from fish and shellfish.

Portion size
The amount of a food served or eaten in one occasion. A portion is not a standard amount. The amount of food it includes may vary by person and occasion.

Protein
(PRO-teen) One of the nutrients that provide calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including blood, bone, muscle, and skin. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like beans, dairy products, eggs, fish, meat, nuts, poultry, and tofu.

Refined grains
Any grain that is not a whole grain
is a refined grain. This includes grains and grain products missing the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. Many refined grains are low in fiber and enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin and fortified with folic acid as required by U.S. regulations. Some examples of refined grain products are white flour, white bread and tortillas, and white rice.

Registered Dietitian (R.D.)
A person who has studied diet and nutrition at a college program approved by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). To become an R.D., a person must complete 900 hours of supervised practical experience accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation for Dietetics Education and must pass an exam.

Saturated fat
Saturated fat (SATCH-er-ay-ted) This type of fat is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat dairy products (like butter, cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among other foods. Saturated fats have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.

Serving size
A standard amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce.

Solid fats
These types of fats are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are found in most animal foods but also can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation. Some common solid fats in our diet include beef fat, butter, chicken fat, coconut oil, palm oil, pork fat (lard), shortening, and stick margarine. Foods high in solid fats include full-fat (regular) cheese, cream, ice cream, and whole milk; bacon, poultry skin, regular ground beef, sausages, and well-marbled cuts of meats; and many baked goods (such as cookies, crackers, croissants, donuts, and pastries).

Stroke
A stroke occurs when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. “Mini-strokes”, or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is stopped for a short time.

Sugar-sweetened beverages
Drinks that are sweetened with added sugars often add a large number of calories. These beverages include, but are not limited to, energy and sports drinks, fruit drinks, soda, and fruit juices.

Trans fatty acids
A type of fat produced when liquid fats (oils) are turned into solid fats through a chemical process called hydrogenation.
Eating a large amount of trans fatty acid, or “trans fats”, also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.

Triglycerides
(Try-GLIH-ser-ides) A type of fat in your blood, triglycerides can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of your arteries if levels are too high. This puts you at risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Triglycerides are measured along with cholesterol as part of a blood test. Normal triglyceride levels are below 150 mg/dL. Levels above 200 mg/dL are high.

Type 1 diabetes
(dye-ah-BEET-eez)  Type 1 diabetes is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. (An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body’s immune system, which usually helps the body fight diseases, turns against its own tissue.) Type 1 diabetes was known as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”, or “juvenile diabetes”. Without insulin, the body is not able to use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. To treat the disease, a person must inject insulin, exercise daily, and test blood sugar several times a day.

Type 2 diabetes
(dye-ah-BEET-eez) People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not efficiently use the insulin they make. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to control their condition by losing weight through diet and exercise. They may also need to inject insulin or take medicine along with continuing to follow a healthy eating pattern and being physically active on a regular basis. Type 2 diabetes was known as “noninsulin-dependent diabetes” or “adult-onset diabetes” and is the most common form of diabetes. Children and adolescents who are overweight may also be at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.

Underwater weighing
A research method for estimating body fat. A person is placed in a tank, underwater, and weighed. By comparing weight underwater with weight on land, one can get a very good measure of body fat.

Unsaturated fat
A fat that is liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats include polyunsaturated fats, and monounsaturated fats. They include most nuts, olives, avocados, and fatty fish, like salmon.

Very-low calorie diet
(VLCD) A person following a VLCD eats or drinks a commercially prepared formula that has 800 calories or less, instead of eating food. A VLCD can allow a person to lose weight more quickly than is usually possible with low-calorie diets, but should only be used under the supervision of a health care provider.

Waist circumference
Excess fat around the waist and a larger waist size increase the risk of health problems linked to obesity. Women with a waist size of more than 35 inches or men with a waist size of more than 40 inches have a higher risk of developing health problems linked to obesity, such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.

Weight control
This refers to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight with healthy eating and physical activity

Weight-cycling

Weight loss supplements

Weight loss supplements

This refers to losing and gaining weight over and over again.
Whole grains
Whole grains Grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, endosperm, and germ as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also a source of dietary fiber.
Whole wheat grains
Grains and grain products made from the entire wheat kernel

More terms related obesity

a ring
a ring reductases
abdominal
abdominal circumference
abdominal fat distribution
abdominal obesity
aberrations
abnormalities
absorptiometry
absorption
acculturation
accumulation
achievement
across
action
action levels for
activation
active
activity
activity exercise
adaptation
adenosine
adenosine diphosphate
adenosine triphosphate
adenylate
adenylate kinase reaction
adipocyte
adipocyte cell line
adipocytes
adipose
adipose cell differentiation
adipose tissue
adipose tissue around
adiposity
adiposity rebound
adjustable
administration
adolescents
adrenergic
adrenocorticotrophic
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
advancement
adverse
aerobic
aerobic metabolism
aerobic power
affecting
african
african americans
after
after surgery
agents
aging
agonists
agouti
agouti related
agouti related protein
air displacement
airway
alactacid
alactacid energy metabolism
alcohol
altered
americans
amphetamine regulated
anaerobic
anaerobic metabolism
analyses
analysis
and amphetamine regulated transcript
and cortisone metabolism
and individual drugs
and obesity epidemic
and smoking
and susceptibility to obesity
androstenedione
animal
animal models
anorectic
anorectic drugs
anorectics
anorexigenic
anorexigenic peptides
anthropometric
anthropometric assessment
anthropometric measurement of methods
anti obesity
anti obesity drugs
antianxiety
antianxiety drugs
antidepressant
antidepressant medications
antidepressants
antiepileptic
antiepileptic drugs
antihistaminergic
antihistaminergic drugs
antihypertensive
antihypertensive drug therapy
antimigraine
antimigraine drugs
antipsychotic
antipsychotic medications
antipsychotics
apnea
apnea sleepapnea
appetite
appetite control
applications
around
artery
as appetite risk factor
as genetic disorder
as global problem
asians
aspects
aspirin
assessment
association
at rest
atherogenic
atherogenic risk factors
atherosclerosis
atherosclerotic
atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
athletes
atomic
atomic level
attributable
availability
average
average life expectancy
awake
awake respiratory failure
balance
banded
banding
barker
barker hypothesis
basal
basal conditions
basal metabolic rate
basic
behavior
behavioral
behavioral change
behavioral characteristics
behavioral depression
behavioral risk factors
benefit
benefit analyses
benefits
benzodiazepine
biceps
biceps skinfold
bile supersaturation
biliopancreatic
biliopancreatic bypass surgery
biochemical
bioimpedance
bioimpedance analysis
bjorntorp
blockers
blood
blood pressure
bmi classification
bmi cut offs
bmi measure
bod pod
body composition
body fat
body fat distribution
body fat measurement
body image
body mass index
body shape
body shape ideals
body temperature
body volume analysis
body weight weight
brain
brain circuit
breast feeding
breathing
bronchial
bronchial hyperresponsiveness
built
built environment efficiencies
buttocks
buttocks circumference
by corticosteroid receptors
bypass
caloric
caloric restriction
calorie
cancer
cancer survivors
candidate
candidate genes
capacity
carbamazepine
carbenoxolone
carbohydrate
carbohydrate flux
carbohydrate foods
carbohydrate oxidation
carbon
cardiac
cardiac complications
cardiac failure
cardiovascular
cardiovascular disease
cardiovascular sequelae
cardiovascular system
carotid
carotid artery bulb
cascade
catecholaminergic
catecholaminergic anorectics
categories
categorizing
caucasians
causing
causing obesity
cell differentiation
cell stimulated
cellular
cellular level
central
central depots
central fat depot
central obesity
centralization
centrally
centrally active drugs
cephalic phase
cephalic phase responses
cerebrovascular
cerebrovascular disease
cessation
chain
change
changes
changes in pregnancy
changing
characteristics
children
chlordiazepoxide
chlorpromazine
choice
cholecystectomy
cholecystokinin
cholelithiasis
cholesterol
chronically
chronically ill
circuit
circumference
classification
clinical
clinical obesity
clothing
clozapine
cocaine
collation
common
common measurement of methods
comorbidity
complications
composition
computerized
computerized tomography
concentrating
concentration
concentrations
concepts
conditions
congenital
congenital syndromes
conicity
conicity index
consequences
consumption
content
contexts
continuous
continuous positive airway pressure
control
copyright
core temperature
coronary
coronary artery disease
coronary heart disease
corticosteroid
corticosteroid binding
corticosteroid binding globulin
corticosteroids
corticotropin releasing
corticotropin releasing hormone
cortisol
cortisol concentrations
cortisol cortisol metabolism
cortisol metabolism
cortisol pulsatile rhythm
cortisone
costs
costs of obesity
counting
countries
creatine
creatine phosphate
criteria
cross sectional
cross sectional area
cultural
culture
current
curves
cushing
cut off
cut off points
cut offs
cycling
cyproheptadine
data collation
daytime
dealing
dealing with
death
deaths
defective
defects
deficiencies
deficiency
definition
definitions
dehydroepiandrosterone
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
dehydrogenases
deletion
delhi
demographic
demographic structure of populations
denmark
density
depot
depots
depression
deranged
derivatives
determinants
developing
developing societies
development
development data
dexamethasone
dexamethasone suppression test
dexfenfluramine
dhea s
diabetes
diameter
diastolic
diastolic function
diazepam
diet induced
diet induced thermogenesis
dietary
dietary fiber
dieting
dieting as
diets
differences
differentiation
digestion
dihydrotestosterone
dimensions
diphosphate
disabled
disease
disease reduction
diseases
disorder
disorders
displacement
distribution
double
double labeled water
doubly
doubly labeled water method
drive
driving
drug induced
drug induced obesity
drug induced weight changes
drugs
drugs affecting
dual energy
dual energy x ray absorptiometry
during
dynamic
dynamic studies
dysfunction
dyslipidemia
dyslipoproteinaemia
early
early clinical trials
early deaths
early infant
early symptoms
eating
economic
economic consequences
economic consequences economic consequences of
economic consequences of obesity
economic economic costs of obesity
edited
edited by per bjorntorp
education
effect
effect of meals on
effects
efficacy
efficiencies
elderly
electrolyte
electrolyte abnormalities
electronic
elevated
eliminating
employment
employment occupations
endocrine
endocrine deficiencies
endocrine effects
endothelial
endothelial factors
energy
energy balance
energy costs
energy expenditure
energy expenditure during
energy from
energy intake
energy metabolism
england
enlargement
environment
environment interactions
environmental
environmental factors
environments
epidemic
epidemiology
estimated
estimates
estrogen
estrogens
ethnic
ethnic groups in usa
ethnicity
eu countries
european
european americans
evaluation
evidence
evidence of links to obesity
evolution
examination
excess
excessive
excessive daytime sleepiness
exchange
exercise
expectancy
expenditure
experience
expiratory
expiratory reserve volume
explanations
explanations for epidemic
expression
extension
factor
factors
factors for obesity
factors promoting
failure
fasting
fasting plasma glucose
fat balance
fat distribution
fat free
fat free mass
fat images
fat intake
fat mass
fat oxidation
fat ranges predicted
fatty
features
feedback
feedback regulation
female
females
fenfluramine
fetal
fetal nutrition
fiber
field
field anthropometric
field anthropometric methods
fluctuation
fluid
fluid abnormalities
fluoxetine
fluphenazine
follow up
food intake
food system transformations
foods
force
forces
formation
formulas
four skinfold
four skinfold method
free fatty acid
from adipocytes
from protein
function
functional
functional residual capacity
functioning
future
gains
gallstone
gallstone prevalence
gallstones
gas exchange
gastric
gastric banding
gastric surgery
gastrointestinal
gastrointestinal tract
gastroplasty
gender
gene expression
gene interactions
gene transcription regulation by
general
general adaptation syndrome
genes
genetic
genetic aspects
genetic factors
gh igf i
global
global obesity
globulin
glucagon like
glucocorticoid
glucocorticoid receptors
glucocorticosteroids
glucoregulation
glucose
glucose lowering
glucose lowering agents
glucose tolerance
glutamine
glycerol
glycerol release
glycogen
glycogen metabolism
glycogen synthesis
glycyrrhetinic
glycyrrhetinic acid
gonadotropin
gonadotropin concentration
groups
growth
growth hormone
growth hormone releasing hormone
guidelines
h cortisol
haemostic
haemostic factors
haloperidol
hardback
hdl cholesterol
health
health problems
health related
health related quality of life
health risks
heart
heart rate
heart weight
height
hepatic
hepatic glucose production
heredity
hierarchy
high fat phenotype
high risk
high risk groups for
hipcircumference
history
horizontal
hormone
hormone binding
hormone replacement therapy
hormones
household
household size
human
human body fat distribution
hydrometry
hydroxysteroid
hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases
hyperandrogeneticity
hyperandrogenicity
hyperandrogenism
hypercapnia
hyperleptinemia
hyperphagia
hyperresponsiveness
hypertension
hypertriglyceridemia
hyperuricemia
hypoandrogenicity
hypoglycemic
hypoglycemic agents
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal
hypothalamic pituitary gonadal
hypothesis
hypothetical
hypothetical explanations
hypothetical follow up
hypoventilation
hypoventilation syndrome
hypoxemia
ideal
ideals
igf i
ighf i
illness
image
images
imaging
impact
impact of
impaired
impaired glucose tolerance
improvement
in adipose tissues
in children
in females
in gallstone formation
in industrialized countries
in males
in obesity prevention
in osteoarthritis
in pregnancy
in primates
in treatment of obesity
in usa
inactivation
inactivity
incidence
income
inconsistent
increased
increases
index
india
indices
individual
individual level
induced
industrialized
industrialized countries
infant
infants
infarction
ingestive
ingestive behavior
inhibitors
initial
initial fasting plasma glucose
insulin
insulin action
insulin action on
insulin like
insulin like growth factor i
insulin receptor
insulin resistance
insulin sensitivity
intake
intensive
intentional
inter pregnancy
interactions
international
international obesity task force
international textbook of obesity
interpretation
interpretation strategies
intervention
intervention study
interventions
intolerance
intracellular
isbns
ischemic
ischemic heart disease
issues
japanese
japanese americans
jejuno ileal
jejuno ileal bypass
jejuno ileal bypass surgery
kinase
knockout
knockout mice
labeled
laboratory
laboratory methods
laboratory standard
lactacid
lactacid anaerobic
lactacid anaerobic metabolism
laparoscopic
laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
laparoscopic surgery
large
large waist circumference
latent
latent symptoms
later
later obesity
left ventricular mass
lengths
leptin
level
levels
lifespan
lifestyle
lifestyle modification
limb lengths
links
lipid
lipid levels
lipolysis
lipoprotein
lipostatic
lipostatic mechanism
liquorice
lithium
liver
long term
long term regulation
long term results
longevity
longitudinal
longitudinal studies
low calorie
low calorie diet
low hdl
lower
lower income countries
luteinizing
luteinizing hormone
lymph
lymph nodes
lymphoid
lymphoid cell stimulated glycerol release
macronutrient
macronutrient balance
macronutrient effects on
macronutrients
magazine related
magazine related screening
magnetic
magnetic resonance imaging
maintenance
males
management
mandibular
mandibular advancement
mandibular advancement splints
marital
marital status
mass screening
maternal
maternal age
maternal body weight
maternal obesity
maximal
maximal exercise
meal patterns
meals
measure
measurement
measurement in special groups
measurement of body fat
measurement of methods
measurements
measures
mechanism
mechanisms
medication
medications
melanin
melanin concentrating hormone
melanocyte stimulating
melanocyte stimulating hormone
mellitus
mendelian
mendelian syndromes
mental
mental depression depression
mental well being
metabolic
metabolic aberrations
metabolic cardiovascular syndrome
metabolic syndrome
metabolism
metabolism during
method
methodological
methodological issues
methods
migration
mineralocorticoid
mineralocorticoid excess syndrome
mineralocorticoid receptor activation
minority
minority populations
models
modern
modern societies
modernization
modification
modulation
molecular
molecular level
molindone
monica
monoamine
monoamine oxidase
mood disorders
morbidity
mortality
mouse
mri images
multicomponent
multicomponent models
multiple
multiple screening
murid
murid rodents
muscle
mutations
myocardial
myocardial infarction
nasal
nasal continuous positive airway pressure
nasal ventilation
national
national health and nutrition examination survey
necrosis
need for
nervous
netherlands
neuroendocrine
neuroendocrine defects
neuropeptide
neuropeptide y
neuropeptides
neurotransmitters
nhanes
nhanes i
nhanes iii
nicotine
nicotine gum
nicotine nasal spray
nitrogen
nodes
non human
non smokers
noradrenaline
noradrenergic
noradrenergic drugs
normoglycemia
normoglycemia achievement
normotension
norms
nuclei
nucleus
nucleus tractus solitarius
nutrient
nutrient absorption
nutrition
nutritionally
nutritionally induced disorder
ob mouse genes
obese
obesigenic
obesigenic environment
obesity
obesity prevalence across lifespan
obstructive
obstructive sleepapnea
occupations
of macronutrients
of obesity
of thiazolidinedione
olanzapine
on adipose tissue
on intake
operational
operational air plethysmograph
opioids
opportunistic
opportunistic screening
oral hypoglycemic agents
orexigenic
orexigenic neuropeptides
orexins
organ
organ level
orlistat
osteoarthritis
osteoporosis
ovary
over consumption
overconsumption
overfeeding
overview
overweight
oxidase
oxidation
oxidative
oxidative hierarchy
oxidative phosphorylation
oxygen
oxygen consumption
paradox
paraventricular
paraventricular nuclei
parenthood
parity
paroxetine
partitioning
passive
passive overconsumption
patch
path analyses summary
pathogenesis
pathology
pathways
patterns
peptide
peptide neurotransmitters
peptides
perception
perinatal
perinatal factors
period
periods
peripheral
peripheral vascular disease
personal
personality
persons
perturbations
pharmacologic
pharmacologic interventions
pharmacological
pharmacological studies
pharmacological treatment
phenothiazines
phenotype
phenotypes
phosphate
phosphorylation
physical
physical activity
physiological
physiology
pickwickian
pickwickian syndrome
pittsburgh
pittsburgh appetite test
pituitary
plasma
plasma glucose
plethysmograph
points
polar
polar steroids
polycystic
polycystic ovary syndrome
polymerase
polymerase chain reaction
ponderal
ponderal index
ponderstatic
ponderstatic mechanism
population
populations
positive
positive airway pressure
post absorptive
post absorptive nutrient partitioning
post cessation
post exercise period
postpartum
postpartum period
postpartum weight
potassium
potential
power
pre absorptive
pre absorptive nutrient partitioning
pre existing
pre existing risk factors
predicted
predicting
predicting total body fat from
prediction
preference
pregnancy
pregnant
premature
premature death and bmi
premenopausal
premenopausal women
pressure
prevalence
prevalence of obesity
prevalence of prevalence of obesity
prevention
prevention of obesity
prevention of prevention of obesity
previous
previous experience with
primary
primary obesity
primates
principal
principles
print
print isbns
pro opiomelanocortin
problem
problems
production
products
products secreted from
profile
profiles
progesterone
programmes
programming
projected
promoting
properties
propranolol
protein
proteins
psychiatric
psychiatric morbidity
psychometric
psychometric criteria
psychometric features
psychosocial
psychosocial disorders
psychosocial factors
psychosocial functioning
public
public health interventions
pulmonary
pulmonary diseases
pulmonary function
pulsatile
putative
quality
quality of life measures
quetelet
quetelet index
randomized
randomized clinical trial
ranges
ratio
reaction
reactivation
rebound
recent
recent experience with
receptor
receptor genes
receptor in adipose tissue
receptors
recommendation
recommended
recommended for pregnant women
recreational
recreational activity levels
reductases
reduction
reduction diets
reduction drugs
reference
reference values
regional
regional adiposity
regulation
relative
relative body weight
relative risk
release
releasing
replacement
replacement therapy
reproductive
reproductive system
reproductive systems
reserve
residence
residential
residential density
residual
resistance
resonance
respiratory
respiratory failure
respiratory symptoms
response
responses
responsiveness
resting
resting energy expenditure
resting metabolic rate
restriction
results
retention
reuptake
rhythm
risk factor
risk factors
risk factors for
risks
risperidone
rodents
role functioning
routes
rules
rules of eating after
running
rural
rural weight differences
s syndrome
sagittal
sagittal abdominal diameter
saliva
saliva cortisol concentrations
samoa
sanomigran
satiating
satiation
satiety
scale
scanner
screening
secondary
secondary prevention
secreted
secretion
see also abdominal circumference
see also aging
see also central obesity
see also death
see also depression
see also drugs
see also health related quality of life
see also individual drugs
see also medications
see also mortality
see also quality of life measures
seeking
selective
selective programmes
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
self assessment
self referral
sensitivity
sensitizer
sequelae
serotonin
serotoninergic
serotoninergic drugs
sertindole
serum
severely
severely obese subjects
sex differences
sex hormone binding globulin
sex specific
sex specific cut off points
sex specific measurements
sex specific waist measurements
sex steroid
sex steroid hormones
sex steroid metabolism
shape
short
short form
sibutramine
sibutramine trial of obesity reduction and maintenance
sickness
sickness impact profile
signals
signals from
silhouettes
single
single gene mutations
sip categories
sites
skeletal
skeletal muscle
skinfold
skinfold measurement
sleep
sleep apnea
sleep disordered
sleep disordered breathing
sleepapnea
sleepiness
small
small baby syndrome
smokers
smoking
smoking post cessation
snoring
social
social status
social stress
social subordination
social support
societal
societal mechanisms
societies
socioeconomic
socioeconomic factors
socioeconomic status
sodium
sodium intake
solitarius
sons ltd
special
specific
specificity
splints
spray
ssris
stage
staged
staged surgery
stages
stages of functional status
standard
standard body mass index curves
starvation
status
status social status
steroid
steroid intracellular receptor superfamily
steroid metabolism
steroids
storm
strategies
strategy
stress
structure
studies
study
stunting
subgrouping
subgrouping of perturbations
subgrouping of visceral obesity with
subgrouping with metabolic syndrome
subjects
submaximal
submaximal exercise
subordination
substrate
substrate use
substrate use during
sulfate
summary
superfamily
supersaturation
support
suppressant
suppression
surgery
surgical
surgical complications
surgical methods of choice
survey
surveys
survivors
susceptibility
sweden
swedish
swedish obese subjects
swedish obese subjects study
sympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
symptoms
syndrome
syndromes
synthase
synthase activity
synthesis
synthetic
synthetic corticosteroids
system
system level
systemic
systems
tape measure
techniques
television
temperature
tendency
tendency for
testosterone
textbook
therapy
thermogenesis
thiazolidinedione
thiazolidinediones
thigh
thigh circumference
thin persons
thioridazine
thiothixane
thyroid
thyroid hormone
thyroid intracellular receptor superfamily
time trends
tissue
tissue level
tissue response
tissue specific changes
tissue specificity
tissues
tolerance
tomography
total
total body carbon
total body nitrogen
total body potassium
total body water
total energy expenditure
tracheostomy
tracing
tract
tractus
transcript
transcription
transcription regulation
transdermal
transdermal nicotine
transformations
transgenic
transgenic deletion
transition
transition societies
treatment
treatment guidelines
trends
triacylglycerols
trial
trials
triceps
triceps skinfold
tricyclic
tricyclic antidepressants
tricyclics
triphosphate
tumor
tumor necrosis factor
un linking
un linking fat from
un linking from obesity
uncoupling
uncoupling protein
underfeeding
undernutrition
underwater
underwater weighing
upper
upper airway surgery
urban
urban residence
urban weight differences
ursodeoxycholic
ursodeoxycholic acid
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
values
variability
variability in appetite control
variations
vascular
vascular disease
vegetarian
vegetarian diet
ventilation
ventilatory
ventilatory control
ventricular
ventricular dysfunction
vertical
vertical banded
very low calorie diets
very low density lipoprotein
viral
viral models
visceral
visceral fat mass
visceral obesity
vlcd
vlcds
vldl
volume
vulnerable
vulnerable periods in life
waist
waist circumference
waist circumference abdominal circumference
waist to hipcircumference
waist to hipcircumference ratio
waist to thigh
waist to thigh ratio
waist watcher tape measure
waist watchers
walking
watcher
watchers
water
weighing
weight
weight changes
weight gain
weight loss
weight loss responsiveness
well being
western
western samoa
who classification
wiley
with
women
women females
workplace
workplace environments
world
world obesity global obesity
x ray

 

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