Hormone Replacement

As we age, some of the hormones are not produced as well as they are in their youth and this can lead to many symptoms. Replacing these hormones can only help restore some of the youthful functions of these hormones but may also help in anti-aging and improve overall well being.

What is hormone replacement therapy?

Hormone replacement therapy, also known as menopausal hormone therapy or postmenopausal hormone therapy, is a form of hormone therapy which is used to treat symptoms associated with menopause in women and adropause in men.

Men’s health

Male-Specific Hormones

Testosterone is a hormone produced within the testicles via a joint process, which also includes the endocrine system and the pituitary gland. This system is collectively known as the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular axis (HPTA). Testosterone serves as the male body’s primary natural hormone, and is largely responsible for the proper development of male sexual characteristics. Although often referred to as a sex hormone, testosterone actually governs several areas within the body including a man’s development from birth onward with responsibility for everything from initial structural gender differentiation, through pubertal changes and male potency (libido & sexual functioning), to the partitioning of bodily muscle and fat distribution. It is also an integral component in men’s sense of well-being, playing a major role in male physiological, biological, and sexual health, while influencing stress coping capacity, sperm production, mental acuity (clarity, memory & recall, concentration & focus), bone density, immune system support, and red blood cell production. Of course testosterone is present in both males and females; however, males typically produce between 4-7 mg per day, which is approximately ten times more than their estrogen-based female counterparts.

Female-Specific Hormones

Estrogens are the sex hormones produced primarily by a female’s ovaries that stimulate the growth of a girl’s sex organs, her breasts, pubic hair, and other secondary sex characteristics. There are three basic estrogens, namely estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), however progesterone (another female-centric hormone) is often considered an estrogen as well. Collectively, these estrogens regulate a diverse array of chemically induced processes within the female body among which are the menstrual cycle, intercourse preparation and during intercourse functions, as well as impact mood, sleep quality, body fat levels, water retention, etc. As with testosterone, estrogen is present with both genders; women produce appreciatively more at approximately 0.5 mg daily. Aging, illness, and certain cancer treatments can adversely affect the body’s delicate hormonal balance, causing changes in sexual interest and functioning. The most familiar of these changes occurs when a women go through menopause. Estrogen production drops throughout this process as women exit their child-bearing years.

However, in the majority of women, ovarian hormones don’t appear to play a significant role in their sex drive. A 2012 study published in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology showed that ovaries, i.e. estrogen production, may not play a pivotal role in sexual ideation and function among older women. This cross-sectional study involved analysis of 1,352 women (57 to 85 years of age) from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project compared women with previous bilateral oophorectomy (removal of one or both of the ovaries) with women who retained their ovaries. The primary outcome of interest was self-report of sexual ideation, chosen because having thoughts about sexual experiences is not prohibited by either a partner or a woman’s own physical limitations. Three hundred fifty-six (25.8%) women reported previous bilateral oophorectomy. Even after adjusting for current hormone therapy, age, education, and race, no significant difference in the report of sexual ideation was found between groups.

Functions of HRT

Hormone replacement therapy is the method used to treat not only the symptoms of menopause, but all other hormonal imbalances as well. A hormone will only act on a part of the body if it ‘fits’, and can therefore be thought of as a type of ‘key’. Its target site (such as a cell) has specially shaped receptors which are analogous to ‘locks’ on their cell walls. If the key(hormone) fits the lock (receptor site), then the hormone will work by impacting the target site (cell), and altering the function of its tissue and/or organ. The primary affected glands include:

  • Pituitary gland– inside the brain, oversees the other glands and keeps hormone levels in check. It can also bring about a change in hormone production somewhere else in the system by releasing its own ‘stimulating’ hormones.
  • Thyroid gland– inside the neck, controls the rate of metabolism.
  • Parathyroid glands– inside the neck surrounding the thyroid gland, control the level of calcium in the bloodstream.
  • Adrenal glands– atop each kidney, make a number of different hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol in times of stress, as well as sex hormones.
  • Pancreas– inside the abdomen, an organ of digestion which makes insulin to control the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
  • Ovaries– inside the female pelvis, make female sex hormones like estrogen.
  • Testes– inside the male scrotum, make male sex hormones like testosterone.

Some common problems of the endocrine system that may be addressed by HRT include: diabetes- too much sugar in the blood caused by problems with insulin production; premenstrual syndrome- symptoms include cramping, bloating, breast tenderness and mood swings; and thyroid problems- when the gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism).

Hormone Replacement Therapy

How Hormone Replacement Works?

The endocrine glands receive feedback from the hypothalamus – a small but important part of the brain which contains several small nuclei with a diversity of functions. It plays an important role in both the nervous and endocrine systems. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus, which in humans, it is roughly the size of an almond and located just below the thalamus and right above the brain stem. Linked to another small and vital gland called the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus controls certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system by synthesizing and secreting neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones. These hypothalamic releasing hormones control and regulate the major endocrine glands (pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenals, and pancreas) as well as within the sex organs (male testes and female ovaries). Hormones are your body’s chemical messengers, they travel throughout the bloodstream to specific cells, tissues, and organs where they work at varying speeds inducing a wide range of homeostatic and other physiological processes central to which are:

  • The release of 8 major hormones by the pituitary gland
  • Growth and development
  • Cellular repair
  • Body temperature
  • Hunger, thirst and food, and water intake
  • Sexual behavior and reproductive functions
  • Daily cycles in physiological state and behavior also known as circadian rhythm
  • Mediation of emotional responses and mood
  • Digestion
  • Circulatory and respiratory function

The goal of HRT is to optimize function, prevent morbidity with aging, and to enhance quality of life. With proper modification, adjustment, and titration by an experienced anti-aging physician, the benefits of HRT far outweigh the risks. Anti-aging physicians remain steadfastly at the helm advancing hormone replacement therapy, thereby providing crucial research data to ultimately negate the controversy and confirm the safety and efficacy of HRT. 

Types of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Millions of women, from every age and background, experience some form of hormone-related health condition during their lifetimes. For many women, help comes in the form of hormone replacement therapy.

Hormones produced by our pharmacy have the exact same chemical structure as naturally occurring human hormones. Consequently, your body recognizes them and allows them to mimic the function of the hormones the body produces on its own. HRT may be useful for relieving the symptoms of a variety of conditions common among women of all ages, including:

  • Menopause
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Moodiness
  • Hot flashes
  • Infertility
  • Post-partum depression
  • Decreased libido
  • Weight gain
  • Endometriosis
  • Fibrocystic breasts
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Night sweats

Restoring Hormonal Balance

HRT replaces deficient hormones with those that are chemically identical to those that the body naturally produces, but which have declined due to aging or illness. HRT has improved the quality of life for millions of women and men who suffer from hormonal imbalance. The ideal process for achieving hormonal balance includes: an assessment of hormone levels: complete evaluation of signs and symptoms; replacement of the deficient hormones in the most appropriate dose via the most effective route; and the monitoring to fine tuning of therapy. Estrogens, progesterone, and androgens are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to achieving hormonal balance. Thyroid and adrenal function, as well as nutritional status, should also be evaluated and treated when indicated.

Circadian rhythm disturbance

The uniqueness of each person makes it incumbent upon health care professionals and patients to work together to customize hormone therapy. Through this cooperation, hormones can be compounded in the required strengths and dosages, and administered via the most appropriate preparation to best meet each individual’s needs.

Mass-Produced HRT Formulations Are Useful But Limited

There are many mass-produced hormone treatments on the market today. However, every woman’s body, and her individual hormonal makeup, is different and each requiring a unique balance of hormones. That’s why more women are turning to custom compounded HRT formulations offered at W8MD with a customized HRT solution to suit your very specific hormone needs.

Dosage Forms

Working with both you and your physician, your Empower Pharmacy compounding pharmacist will assist in evaluating your serum or saliva tests and hormone evaluation worksheet. By studying and interpreting your results, your care team will determine an individualized course of treatment for you. Then, with your healthcare provider’s prescription, we can prepare hormones in a variety of strengths and preparations including:

  • Injectables
  • Sublingual drops or troches
  • Capsules
  • Gels and foams
  • Suppositories
  • Topical or vaginal creams
  • Pellets




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