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Bones are a crucial part of the human body, providing structure and support for the body's tissues and organs. They also protect vital organs and allow for movement. In this article, we will explore the anatomy and function of bones, as well as potential health issues related to bones.

Bone, England, 1870-1909 Wellcome L0057379


  • Bones are made up of several layers, including:
  • Periosteum: The periosteum is a tough, fibrous membrane that covers the outside of bones.
  • Compact bone: Compact bone is the dense outer layer of bone that provides strength and support.
  • Spongy bone: Spongy bone is the inner layer of bone that is less dense and provides support and flexibility.
  • Bone marrow: Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside bones that produces blood cells.


  • Bones perform several important functions in the body, including:
  • Support: Bones provide support for the body's tissues and organs.
  • Protection: Bones protect vital organs, such as the brain and heart.
  • Movement: Bones allow for movement by providing attachment points for muscles.
  • Blood cell production: Bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Left femur of extinct elephant, Alaska, Ice Age Wellcome L0057714

Health Issues

  • There are a number of health issues related to bones, including:
  • Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and brittle, increasing the risk of fractures.
  • Arthritis: Arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation and damage to the joints, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Fractures: Fractures occur when bones break or crack, often due to trauma or injury.
  • Bone cancer: Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects the bones.


  • There are several steps that individuals can take to maintain healthy bones and prevent bone-related health issues, including:
  • Consuming a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Engaging in weight-bearing exercises, such as walking or jogging.
  • Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Getting regular bone density tests, particularly for individuals at higher risk for osteoporosis.

Also see

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