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Epinephrine, commonly known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter generated by the adrenal glands that is crucial to the body's "fight or flight" response. It is used to treat severe allergic reactions, asthma, and cardiac arrest since it is a strong vasoconstrictor and bronchodilator.


  • The adrenal glands, which are placed on top of the kidneys, create epinephrine. It is released into the circulation in reaction to stress or danger, such as during exercise, mental tension, or physical harm. Epinephrine exerts its effects on a variety of organs, including the heart, blood vessels, and airways.
  • Epinephrine raises heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, and blood glucose concentrations. Moreover, it dilates the airways, improving oxygen absorption, and improves mental and physical performance.

Clinical Use

  • Epinephrine is utilized in several therapeutic contexts, including:
  • Epinephrine is the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, a severe and sometimes fatal allergic reaction that can produce swelling, hives, and breathing difficulties. It is delivered using an auto-injector and can swiftly reverse anaphylactic symptoms.
  • As a bronchodilator, epinephrine can be used to treat acute asthma episodes by widening the airways and improving breathing.
  • In advanced cardiac life support procedures for the treatment of cardiac arrest, epinephrine is utilized to stimulate the heart and restore circulation.
  • Epinephrine is frequently administered to local anesthetics to extend their effects and decrease surgical bleeding.

Adverse Effects

Also see

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